Joseph P. This book traces the life of Francois Mitterrand from his youth as an ardent Catholic and supporter of Marshal Petain, to his career as a centrist politician of the Fourth Republic, through his capture of the leadership of the Socialist Party, leading to his election as President of France in During these years the Communist Party of France, influenced by such militants as the poet Louis Aragon, was evolving into a national party eager to participate in a joint effort with the Socialist Party to begin a rupture with capitalism through the election of Mitterrand as President.
Prime Minister : — Prime Minister : —; — Prime Minister : Jan—Oct Chairman of the Provisional Government : —; Prime Minister : — Prince Norodom Ranariddh. Ahmad Ziwar Pasha. Minister of State : —; Prime Minister : — Prime Minister : May—Dec ; — Prime Minister : —; President : — Prime Minister : —present. Sri Lanka. It represented the progressive wing of French Catholicism.
Radical forces disestablished the Catholic Church and seized its properties; the conservative Pope Pius X told the bishops to distance themselves from the state. Better relations were restored in the s, but the parties on the left were anticlerical. In , the Popular Democratic Party was founded. However, more liberal Christian Democratic ideas arose in intellectual circles. Emmanuel Mounier founded the review Esprit which denounced fascism and passivity of the Western democracies.
In , some prominent French politicians wanted to rally all the non-Communist Resistance behind Charles De Gaulle ; this project failed.
The French Section of the Workers International was refounded and people from the Christian resistance movement founded the Popular Republican Movement, it claimed its loyalty to de Gaulle, who led the provisional government composed of Communists and Christian democrats. Indeed, among the three largest parties, it was the only one, not Marxist. Furthermore, it appeared the closest to de Gaulle, it supported the reforms decided by the provisional government and inspired by the programme of the National Council of Resistance written during the war: nationalisation of banks and industrial companies such as Renault , the creation of a welfare state.
That's why it was defined as a " centrist party with right-wing voters but a left-wing policy"; the MRP disagreed with the institutional and constitutional ideas of De Gaulle, who advocated a strong executive power, not dependent on Parliament, acting in the national interest while particular interests would be represented by the parties in Parliament. Wanting to achieve the complete integration of Catholicism in the Republic, the MRP supported the principle of parliamentary democracy against De Gaulle.
Relations with De Gaulle deteriorated. In January , the president of the provisional government resigned in protest at the restoration of the "parties regime". The MRP ministers chose to stay in government. The party called on voters to reject the proposed constitution in May , fearing the election of a pro-Communist regime.
After that, the MRP became the largest party in parliament after the June legislative election and Bidault took charge of the cabinet. It was allied with the Socialists and the Communists in the Three-parties alliance until spring , it joined the Third Force that brought together centre-left and centre-right parties against the Communists on the one hand and the Gaullists on the other hand. Indeed, European unification was an important part of the MRP platform.
France France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of , square kilometres and a total population of France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre.
Other major urban areas include Lyon , Toulouse , Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in , who formed the Kingdom of Francia. During the Renaissance , French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants.
In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire , his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in France was a major participant in World War I , from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II , but came under occupation by the Axis powers in Following liberation in , a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War ; the Fifth Republic , led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today.
Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the s and retained close economic and military connections with France.
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France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch , all of which have more or less the same historical meaning.
There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm , the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul , only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras.
Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder.
After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Charles de Gaulle. Elections and referendums in France. Categories : elections in France Presidential elections in France. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from April Pages using deprecated image syntax Use dmy dates from May Revision History.
Georges Pompidou. Related Images.
YouTube Videos. De Gaulle as Leader of Free France. De Gaulle's birth house in Lille , now a national museum. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in and became the Emperor of the French from to Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. Louis-Napoleon launching his failed coup in Strasbourg in The French presidential election of was the first ever held.
It elected the first and only president of the Second Republic. John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January until his assassination in November Lieutenant junior grade Kennedy standing at right with his PT crew, Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT , Kennedy lying on a gurney following spinal surgery, accompanied by Jackie, December Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou was Prime Minister of France from to —the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from until his death in The Constitutional Council is the highest constitutional authority in France.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Office of the President of the French Constitutional Council. Laurent Fabius , current President of the Constitutional Council.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse — approximately 18, BC. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar during the Battle of Alesia. The Gallic defeat in the Gallic Wars secured the Roman conquest of the country. With Clovis 's conversion to Catholicism in , the Frankish monarchy , elective and secular until then, became hereditary and of divine right.
Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials.