The percentage of the population who speak French both by mother tongue and home language has decreased over the past three decades. Whereas the number of those who speak English at home is higher than the number of people whose mother tongue is English, the opposite is true for Francophones. There are fewer people who speak French at home, than learned French after birth. Ethnic diversity is growing in French Canada but still lags behind the English-speaking parts of the country.
As a result of the growth in immigration, since the s, from countries in which French is a widely used language, 3. The Irish, who started arriving in large numbers in Quebec in the s, were the first such group, which explains why it has been possible for Quebec to have had five premiers of Irish ethnic origin: John Jones Ross —87 , Edmund James Flynn —97 , Daniel Johnson Sr.
In , due to linguistic assimilation of Francophones outside Quebec, over one million Canadians who claimed English as their mother tongue were of French ethnic origin Census. Ability of Canadians to speak English and French — Rate of bilingualism French and English in Quebec and the rest of Canada, — According to the census, The bilingualism rate of the Canadian population edged up from Bilingualism with regard to nonofficial languages also increased, most individuals speaking English plus an immigrant language such as Punjabi or Mandarin.
Geographical distribution of bilingual Canadians as compared to total Canadian population — According to the census , Similarly, the rate of bilingualism in Quebec has risen higher, and more quickly than in the rest of Canada. English—French bilingualism is highest among members of local linguistic minorities. It is very uncommon for Canadians to be capable of speaking only the minority official language of their region French outside of Quebec or English in Quebec.
Only 1. As the table below shows, rates of bilingualism are much higher among individuals who belong to the linguistic minority group for their region of Canada, than among members of the local linguistic majority. These communities are:. The language continuity index represents the relationship between the number of people who speak French most often at home and the number for whom French is their mother tongue.
A continuity index of less than one indicates that French has more losses than gains — that more people with French as a mother tongue speak another language at home. Outside of Quebec, New Brunswick has the highest French language continuity ratio. British Columbia and Saskatchewan have the lowest French language continuity ratio and thus the lowest retention of French.
From to , the overall ratio for French language continuity outside of Quebec declined from 0. Declines were the greatest for Manitoba , Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland. Canada is home to a rich variety of indigenous languages that are spoken nowhere else.
There are 12 Indigenous language groups in Canada, made up of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects, including many sign languages. However, the reserve system has created more permanent stationary bands, which have generally selected only one of their various ancestral languages to try to preserve in the face of increasing Anglicization. Two of Canada's territories give official status to native languages. In Nunavut , Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun , known collectively as the Inuit Language, are official languages alongside the national languages of English and French, and Inuktitut is a common vehicular language in territorial government.
The language situation in Canada with special regard to Quebec - Jochen Kosel - Term Paper (Advanced seminar) - English - Applied Geography - Publish your. The Language Situation in Canada with Special Regard to Quebec: Jochen Kosel: Books - uwewefatymix.gq
According to the census, less than one percent of Canadians , reported an Indigenous language as their mother tongue, and less than one percent of Canadians , reported an Indigenous language as their home language. Given the destruction of Indigenous state structures, academics usually classify Indigenous peoples of Canada by region into " culture areas ", or by their Indigenous language family.
In Canada, as elsewhere in the world of European colonization , the frontier of European exploration and settlement tended to be a linguistically diverse and fluid place, as cultures using different languages met and interacted. The need for a common means of communication between the indigenous inhabitants and new arrivals for the purposes of trade and in some cases intermarriage led to the development of hybrid languages. These languages tended to be highly localized, were often spoken by only a small number of individuals who were frequently capable of speaking another language, and often persisted only briefly, before being wiped out by the arrival of a large population of permanent settlers, speaking either English or French.
It is based on elements of Cree, Ojibwa , Assiniboine , and French. Michif is today spoken by less than 1, individuals in Saskatchewan, Manitoba and North Dakota. At its peak, around , Michif was understood by perhaps three times this number. Algonquian—Basque pidgin is a pidgin that developed in the 16th century from Basque in coastal areas along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Strait of Belle Isle as the result of contact between Basque whalers and local Algonquian peoples. In British Columbia, Yukon and throughout the Pacific Northwest a pidgin language known as the Chinook Jargon emerged in the early 19th century which was a combination of Chinookan , Nootka , Chehalis , French and English, with a smattering of words from other languages including Hawaiian and Spanish.
Alongside the numerous and varied oral languages, Canada also boasts several sign languages. Currently, Canada is home to some five or more sign languages that number rising with the probability that Plains Sign Talk is actually a language family with several languages under its umbrella , belonging to four distinct language families , those being: French Sign Language language family, BANZSL family and two isolates Inuiuuk and Plains Sign Talk. As with all sign languages around the world that developed naturally, these are natural, human languages distinct from any oral language. As such, American Sign Language unlike Signed English is no more a derivation of English than Russian is,  all being distinct languages from one another.
Some languages present here were trade pidgins which were used first as a system of communication across national and linguistic boundaries of First Nations, however, they have since developed into mature languages as children learned them as a first language. The sign languages of Canada share extremely limited rights within the country in large due to the general population's misinformation on the subject. Ontario is the only province or territory to formally make legal any sign language, enabling the use of American Sign Language, Quebec Sign Language LSQ and "First Nation Sign Language" which could refer to Plains Sign Talk or any other language in only the domains of education, legislation and judiciary proceedings.
The ties with Anglophone Canada are not due to ASL and English's similarity, they have to do with cultural similarities and linguistic history as several ASL words are borrowed from English. Centred mainly around and within Quebec, LSQ can also be found in Ontario, New Brunswick and various other parts of the country, generally around francophone communities due to historical ties to the French language.
As such, both languages are mutually intelligible. It is still remembered by some elderly people but is moribund. The exact number of speakers is unknown. It is a language isolate and has only be found by researchers in Nunavut , however, there are theories it extends across the Arctic Circle. Originally a trade pidgin, Plains Sign Talk , also known as Plains Standard or Prairie Sign Language, became a full language after children began to learn the language as a first language across many Nations.
One is potentially Navajo Sign Language which is in use by a sole Navajo clan. It is now extinct. Scottish Gaelic was spoken by many immigrants who settled in Glengarry County, Ontario and the Maritimes — predominantly in New Brunswick's Restigouche River valley, central and southeastern Prince Edward Island, and across the whole of northern Nova Scotia — particularly Cape Breton. While the Canadian Gaelic dialect has mostly disappeared, regional pockets persist.
These are mostly centred on families deeply committed to their Celtic traditions. Nova Scotia currently has —1, fluent speakers, mostly in northwestern Cape Breton. There have been attempts in Nova Scotia to institute Gaelic immersion on the model of French immersion. As well, formal post-secondary studies in Gaelic language and culture are available through St. In , a private member's bill was tabled in the Canadian Senate , calling for Gaelic to be made Canada's third official language.
However, the bill was defeated 42—7. A portmanteau language which is said to combine English and French syntax, grammar and lexicons to form a unique interlanguage , is sometimes ascribed to mandatory basic French education in the Canadian anglophone school systems. While many Canadians are barely conversant in French they will often borrow French words into their sentences. This phenomenon is more common in the eastern half of the country where there is a greater density of Francophone populations. Franglais can also refer to the supposed degradation of the French language thanks to the overwhelming impact Canadian English has on the country's Francophone inhabitants, though many linguists would argue that while English vocabulary can be freely borrowed as a stylistic device, the grammar of French has been resistant to influences from English  and the same conservatism holds true in Canadian English grammar,  even in Quebec City.
One interesting example of is Chiac , popularly a combination of Acadian French and Canadian English , but actually an unmistakable variety of French, which is native to the Maritimes particularly New Brunswick which has a large Acadian population. Ottawa Valley Twang is the accent , sometimes referred to as a dialect of English, that is spoken in the Ottawa Valley , in Ontario.
The initial European settlers to Newfoundland were fishermen from the various coastal villages of the English West Country of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Bristol, and Wiltshire beginning in the s previously they visited in summer and returned. Labrador , today the greater part of "Newfoundland", was then sparsely settled.
The West Country dialects continued to be spoken in isolated coves and fjords of the island thus preserving varied dialects of what is today referred to as Newfoundland English. It was not until the s that social disruptions in Ireland sent thousands of Irish from the southeastern counties of Waterford, Wexford, Kilkenny, and Cork and to the Avalon peninsula in the eastern part of Newfoundland where significant Irish influence on the Newfoundland dialects may still be heard. Some of the Irish immigrants to Newfoundland were native speakers of Irish making Newfoundland the only place outside Europe to have its own Irish dialect.
The Irish language is now extinct in Newfoundland. After years, much of the dialectal differences between the isolated settlements has leveled out beginning in the 20th century when faster boats using gas engines instead of oars or sails , and improved road connections provided easier social contact. As well, influences from mainland North America began to affect the local dialects beginning during WWII when US and Canadian servicemen were stationed in Newfoundland and accelerating after Newfoundland became a Canadian province in Lack of an official orthography, publications in dialect, speaker attrition and official disinterest in promoting the language has been contributing factors towards a decline of speakers of the older, traditional Newfoundland English in the original settlements.
Some Welsh is found in Newfoundland. In part, this is as a result of Welsh settlement since the 17th century. Also, there was an influx of about 1, Patagonian Welsh migrated to Canada from Argentina after the Falklands War. Welsh-Argentines are fluent in Spanish as well as English and Welsh. Acadian French is a unique form of Canadian French which incorporates not only distinctly Canadian phrases but also nautical terms, English loanwords , linguistic features found only in older forms of French as well as ones found in the Maritimer English dialect. Canada is also home to Canadian Ukrainian , a distinct dialect of the Ukrainian language , spoken mostly in Western Canada by the descendants of first two waves of Ukrainian settlement in Canada who developed in a degree of isolation from their cousins in what was then Austria-Hungary , the Russian Empire , Poland , and the Soviet Union.
It has a lot in common with South Russian dialects , showing some common features with Ukrainian. This dialect's versions are becoming extinct in their home regions of Georgia and Russia where the Doukhobors have split into smaller groups. It is influenced by Cree and Scots Gaelic. Bungee was spoken in the Red River area of Manitoba. In , at the time of the only academic study ever undertaken on the language, only six speakers of Bungee were known to still be alive.
English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament of Canada , and in all federal institutions. The public has the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French. Immigrants who are applying for Canadian citizenship must normally be able to speak either English or French.
The principles of bilingualism in Canada are protected in sections 16 to 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms of which establishes that:. Canada's Official Languages Act, first adopted in and updated in , gives English and French equal status throughout federal institutions. New Brunswick and Canada's three territories have all given official status to more than one language. In the case of New Brunswick, this means perfect equality. In the other cases, the recognition sometimes amounts to a formal recognition of official languages, but limited services in official languages other than English.
Until , Quebec was the only officially bilingual province in Canada and most public institutions functioned in both languages. English was also used in the legislature, government commissions and courts. However, the Charter of the French Language enumerates a defined set of language rights for the English language and for Aboriginal languages, and government services are available, to certain citizens and in certain regions, in English.
As well, a series of court decisions have forced the Quebec government to increase its English-language services beyond those provided for under the original terms of the Charter of the French Language. Regional institutions in the Nunavik region of northern Quebec offer services in Inuktitut and Cree. Most provinces have laws that make either English or both English and French the official language s of the legislature and the courts but may also have separate policies in regards to education and the bureaucracy. For example, in Alberta , English and French are both official languages of debate in the Legislative Assembly , but laws are drafted solely in English and there is no legal requirement that they be translated into French.
French can be used in some lower courts and education is offered in both languages, but the bureaucracy functions almost solely in English. Therefore, although Alberta is not officially an English-only province, English has a higher de facto status than French. Ontario and Manitoba are similar but allow for more services in French at the local level. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Source: Statistics Canada, Census Population by language spoken most often and regularly at home, age groups total , for Canada, provinces and territories.
Figures reflect single responses. Further information: Canadian English. Further information: French language in Canada. Main article: Bilingual belt. The Bilingual Belt. In most of Canada, either English or French is predominant. Only in the intermittent "belt" stretching between northern Ontario and northern New Brunswick, and in a few other isolated pockets, do the two languages mix on a regular basis.
English and French Bilingual Belt. Main articles: Canadian Aboriginal syllabics , Indigenous languages of the Americas , and List of endangered languages in Canada. Plains Sign Talk. Hawai'i Sign Language. Maritime Sign Language. Plateau Sign Language. Martha's Vineyard Sign Language. Henniker Sign Language. Sandy River Valley Sign Language. Main articles: Official bilingualism in Canada and Official bilingualism in the public service of Canada. Main article: Language policies of Canada's provinces and territories.
Languages portal Canada portal. Similarly, since , the City of Ottawa has been officially required under Ontario law,  to set a municipal policy on English and French. In Alberta, the Alberta School Act protects the right of French-speaking people to receive school instruction in the French language in the province.
There is considerable variation across Canada concerning the right to use English and French in legislatures and courts federal, provincial and territorial. Three provinces Manitoba, New Brunswick and Quebec have constitutional guarantees for bilingualism and language rights. Three other provinces Alberta, Ontario and Saskatchewan have statutory provisions relating to bilingualism in the legal system, as do each of the three territories Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
Official bilingualism should not be confused with personal bilingualism , which is the capacity of a person to speak two languages. This distinction was articulated in the report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism , which stated:. Nonetheless, the promotion of personal bilingualism in English and French is an important objective of official bilingualism in Canada.
Knowledge of the two official languages is largely determined by geography. In the rest of the country, There is also a large French-speaking population in Manitoba. Statistics Canada collects much of its language data from self-assessments.
Non-Francophone students learn French by taking courses on the French language as part of an education that is otherwise conducted in English. In the other provinces, French classes typically start in Grade 4 or 5. Students normally receive about hours of French-language classes by the time of graduation. One result of this is that comprehension levels are often lower than parents would prefer.
A scholar who interviewed a former New Brunswick premier, as well as the province's deputy ministers of education and health and the chairman of its Board of Management and Official Languages Branch reports: "[A]ll expressed reservations about the effectiveness of the Core program in promoting individual bilingualism and believed the program must be improved if anglophone students are to obtain a level of proficiency in the French language. Non-Francophone students with no previous French-language training learn French by being taught all subjects in the French language, rather than by taking courses on the French language as part of an education otherwise conducted in English.
In late immersion , children are placed in French-language classes in a later grade. Students enter into this program as early as Grade 4—the starting grade is set by each region's school board—and may continue the program through to graduation. From Grades 4 through 8, this means that at least one course per year other than "French as a Second Language" must be taught solely in French.
From Grades 9 through 12, along with taking the Extended French language course every year, students must complete their mandatory Grade 9 Geography and Grade 10 Canadian History credits in French. Students who complete these required courses and take one extra credit taught in French receive a certificate upon graduation in addition to their diploma. In , Intensive French began in some schools in British Columbia. Intensive French is a choice program in offering schools during the grade 6 year.
In the grade 7 year students continue to have one hour of core French per day. This results in hours of French instruction over the two years. New Brunswick, being an officially bilingual province, has both anglophone and francophone school districts. Quebec's educations system provides ESL on a more restricted basis to the children of immigrants and to students who are members of the province's Francophone majority.
The latter will often be described as functionally illiterate. These figures are not invented, they are quite real. Illiteracy affects all countries, whether they are industrialized or not. Quebec is no exception to the rule. In Parlez-vous francais? The advantages of bilingualism in Canada , published by the Canadian Council on Learning, page 6 states:.
Furthermore, the review committee heard that qualified and fluent teachers sometimes chose to leave the French immersion program to teach in the English program. The review committee heard that although it is very difficult for principals to find French immersion teachers for permanent contract teaching assignments, it is even more problematic for them to find FI teachers for long-term occasional assignments.
Section 4. Federal party leaders often master the official languages poorly themselves  and even Senate translators might fail to master their languages of work well enough to provide trustworthy translations . Marguerite Ouimet said that she spent more time in a booth than at home, as did many of her colleagues. He took great care to ensure that the booths met national standards. The quality of the service varies greatly from one translator to another and there are often errors in the translations even when a request for a secondary review is made.
Some respondents noted that the two language versions of committee reports often do not convey the same meaning and that, in some cases, the translation is simply erroneous. Much time is reportedly spent by senators and staff reviewing the documents in question and ensuring that the translation is accurate.
Other respondents reported that longer documents that had been translated by more than one individual were disjointed and difficult to read because a common style had not been used. Recommendations ranged from the need to hire specialized translators to facilitate the translation of committee reports on technical matters, to ensuring proper revision of translations before their delivery, and to the need to provide for a feedback mechanism that could be used to alert the Translation Bureau when errors were detected. Some senators reported hearing literal translations that did not convey the true meaning of what the speaker had said.
Others noted that regional expressions were not properly interpreted. Many respondents asked if it would be possible to have the same interpreters covering the Chamber and specific committees as this would ensure continuity. The need to upgrade the Senate's technological equipment was raised as devices in some committee rooms did not work properly.
Some committee clerks noted that a more modern way for clerks to provide material to the interpreters was needed. Such technological upgrades could make communication of information quicker and more efficient. Since these expenditures include transfers to provinces that are spent by them on official language programs Vaillancourt and Coche, 25, table 1 , aggregating federal, provincial, and local spending must net out these transfers to avoid double counting.
The linguistic provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms , the Official Languages Act , the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act,  the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act , and other laws obligate a greater demand for English and French speakers even foreign ones if necessary than a freer linguistic market would require. This, combined with English and French being more difficult to learn than some languages due to their orthographic especially for the Deaf, dyslexics, and Deaf-dyslexics , grammatical, and lexical particularities, accentuates the wealth gap between official and Deaf, indigenous, and other unofficial language communities by limiting market supply and blocking equal access to Federal and federally-regulated employment ranging from the packaging and labelling industries all the way up to appointments to the Supreme Court of Canada for unofficial language communities.
Perry Bellegarde and Romeo Sagansh have addressed this concern as it applies to indigenous peoples. The advantages of bilingualism in Canada , published by the Canadian Council on Learning, page 4 states:. Similar gaps remain after controlling for individual characteristics such as educational attainment and work experience. Senator Murray Sinclair has opposed requiring Supreme Court judges to know both official languages too.
Nonetheless, the promotion of personal bilingualism in English and French is an important objective of official bilingualism in Canada. Canada's thirteen provinces and territories have adopted widely diverging policies with regard to minority-language services for their respective linguistic minorities. Students who complete these required courses and take one extra credit taught in French receive a certificate upon graduation in addition to their diploma. A review of the parliamentary debates of the period when the notion of vitality was introduced into the Official Languages Act leaves the impression that the application would be flexible and based on the changing conditions of the official language communities. There are 12 Indigenous language groups in Canada, made up of more than 65 distinct languages and dialects, including many sign languages. Answer to question 49 : The mandate of the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages is to ensure compliance with the Official Languages Act in the federal institutions subject to it.
While the inherent difficulties of English and French can prevent some from learning them well, their international spread can greatly benefit those who have the means to learn them well. The mandate of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was to. We should point out here that the Commission will not examine the question of the Indians and the Eskimos. Our terms of reference contain no allusion to Canada's native populations.
They speak of "two founding races," namely Canadians of British and French origin, and "other ethnic groups," but mention neither the Indians nor the Eskimos. Since it is obvious that these two groups do not form part of the "founding races," as the phrase is used in the terms of reference, it would logically be necessary to include them under the heading "other ethnic groups.
Still, as we have pointed out earlier, there is such a thing as a French culture and a British culture. Of course, the differences between them are not as great as they would be if either were compared to one of the many Asian or African cultures. In Canada, the Anglophones and the Francophones wear the same sort of clothing, live in the same sort of houses, and use the same tools. They are very similar in their social behaviour, belong to religions which are not exclusive, and share the same general knowledge.
To a greater or lesser extent, they share a North American way of living. Book II, Chapter V. Commissioner J. Esperanto Services, Ottawa; the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada, Toronto; and other organizations representing different indigenous and other unofficial-language communities likewise presented briefs that presented alternative notions to that of 'two founding races. English and French Canadians of the Pacific Northwest sometimes used Chinook Jargon also known as Chinuk Wawa to interact not only with the local indigenous, Chinese, and other populations but even with one another up until at least after which it began to decline as a result of the Spanish flu, World War I, and the Canadian Indian residential school system.
Beauchemin founded the Esperanto group La Lumo published from to and read by readers. Both Esperanto and Chinook Jargon possibly fed in part by a combination of the low rate of success in official-second-language instruction in Canada's public schools, a growing belief in the need for reconciliation , the comparative ease of learning of these languages, the comparative grammatical precision of Esperanto conferring on it an advantage as a source language for translation and machine translation, the relative decline of English in an increasingly international world economy,  and the advantages of direct communication in a standard language over translation and broken language have experienced revivals since the s leading to the publication of a self-instruction book for Chinuk Wawa in Esperanto in People have made use of the mobile application Amikumu to network with one another in Esperanto since 22 April and in other languages since the LangFest in Montreal on 25 August It has since spread to countries speaking languages.
In Lament for a Notion, Scott Reid proposes maintaining the present official languages but deregulating them, limiting them mostly to the official sphere, and applying the territoriality principle except where numbers warrant it. Former Quebec Premier Jean Charest had called on the Federal Government to apply the Charter of the French Language to all federally-regulated institutions operating in the province of Quebec. She writes:. Bellegarde said in an interview on Wednesday at the three-day annual general meeting of the AFN, Canada's largest indigenous organization.
Some First Nations already apply this principle on territory under their jurisdiction. Parents should have the right to send their children to a school which teaches in the language of their choice. Education standards in all non-linguistic fields should be the same, but in all schools the first language, after the language of instruction, should be Esperanto.
It should be taught for one year only on a daily basis. After this year, one subject, possibly geography, should be taught in Esperanto in order to keep the language skills alive. It should be up to the parents to choose the most suitable of many alternatives. Here are a few possibilities: A. Bussing the student to a school which teaches in the desired language.
The parents would have to pay the additional expense. Boarding the students close to such a school. Putting children from a multitude of language backgrounds into one school, where the language of instruction in all subjects is Esperanto, except for lessons in the mother tongue, which would be taught separately for Croatians, Estonians, Vietnamese and Chileans for example. If there are enough students, subjects taught in the mother tongue could be enlarged.
Let the children visit the school of another language group, but give them separate instruction in their mother tongue. Teach the students at home, possibly with help from cable TV or videorecorders. But never should a native be instructed in the language of another ethnic group. Polls show that Canadians consistently and strongly support two key aspects of Canadian official languages policy: [ citation needed ].
Among Francophones, polls have revealed no such reservations. The national consensus has, at times, broken down when other aspects of official bilingualism are examined. However, a significant shift in anglophone opinion has occurred since the mids, in favour of bilingualism. According to a review of three decades' worth of poll results published in by Andre Turcotte and Andrew Parkin, "Francophones in Quebec are almost unanimous in their support of the official languages policy" but "there is a much wider variation in opinion among Anglophones This variation can be seen, for example, in responses to the question, "Are you, personally, in favour of bilingualism for all of Canada?
By , affirmative responses to the question "Are you personally in favour of bilingualism for all of Canada?
According to Turcotte and Parkin, other poll data reveal that "in contrast to Francophones, Anglophones, in general, have resisted putting more government effort and resources into promoting bilingualism Opposition seems to be directed to the actions of the federal government, rather than to bilingualism itself In English Canada, there is some regional variation in attitudes towards federal bilingualism policy, but it is relatively modest when compared to the divergence between the views expressed by Quebecers and those expressed in the rest of the country.
Both French-speaking and English-speaking Canadians tend to regard the capacity to speak the other official language as having cultural and economic value,  and both groups have indicated that they regard bilingualism as an integral element of the Canadian national identity. Once again, however, there is a marked divergence between the responses of French-speaking and English-speaking Canadians.
Some of these hearings have dealt largely, or even primarily, with official languages policy, and the responses that they have collected provide snapshots into the state of public opinion at particular points in time. The Advisory Committee on the Official Languages of New Brunswick was commissioned by the provincial legislature as a way of determining the response of the population to the Poirier-Bastarache Report, which had recommended a considerable expansion of French-language services.
The briefs submitted to the Advisory Committee were subsequently summarized in an academic study of the hearings in the following terms:. These comments, which probably represent the most extensive consultation ever with Canadians on the subject of official bilingualism, were compiled statistically by the Spicer Commission, and tend to reinforce the findings of pollsters, that Canadians are favourable towards bilingual services, but frustrated with the implementation of official languages policy.
On the other hand, we find that the application of the official languages policy is a major irritant outside Quebec, and not much appreciated inside Quebec In spite of real and needed progress in linguistic fair play in federal institutions, a sometimes mechanical, overzealous, and unreasonably costly approach to the policy has led to decisions to that have helped bring it into disrepute. Citizens tell us that bilingual bonuses, costly translation of technical manuals of very limited use, public servants' low use of hard-acquired French-language training, excessive designation of bilingual jobs, and a sometimes narrow, legalistic approach are sapping a principle they would otherwise welcome as part of Canada's basic identity.
A number of groups exist, which, as part of their mandate, seek to promote official bilingualism or to extend the scope of the policy although advocacy is not always the sole, or even the primary activity, of the groups. Among these groups:. A number of groups have existed, since the first Official Languages Act was proclaimed in , which sought to end official bilingualism or to reduce the scope of the policy. In the first decade or so following the adoption of the Act, opposition to the new policy sometimes took a radical form that has subsequently nearly disappeared.
Books such as Jock V. Andrew's Bilingual Today, French Tomorrow , advocated either the repeal of the Official Languages Act or an end to the policy of official bilingualism. Leonard Jones , the mayor of Moncton , New Brunswick, was an aggressive opponent of bilingualism in the late s and early s. Jones challenged the validity of the Official Languages Act in court, arguing that the subject matter was outside the jurisdiction of the federal government.
In , the Supreme Court of Canada ruled against Jones, and found the law constitutional. In , a local resurgence in anti-bilingualism sentiments allowed the Confederation of Regions Party to win Some organizations or individuals within certain movements also propose introducing a more inclusive language policy either via official multilingualism, or an official unilingual language policy in an auxiliary language so as to intrude minimally into the first-language choice of residents.
Assembly of First Nations : National First Nations Language Strategy, presented by the Assembly of First Nations on 5 July , inspired by previous statements including the report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples presented in , rejects official bilingualism in favour of linguistic equality for speakers of indigenous languages:. If adopted, this bill will have the effect of blocking any candidate who is not already sufficiently bilingual to understand oral arguments in both official languages from being appointed to the Supreme Court. The new party adopted the principles of the old Progressive Conservatives as its founding principles, with only a handful of changes.
One of these was the addition of the following founding principle, which is lifted almost verbatim from Section 16 1 of the Charter of Rights :. At its founding convention in , the new party added the following policy to its Policy Declaration the official compilation of the policies that it had adopted at the convention :. Prior to this, in the s and s, the Reform Party of Canada had advocated the policy's repeal.
However, the party's position moderated with time. By , the Blue Book the party's declaration of its then-current policies stated that "The Reform Party supports official bilingualism in key federal institutions, such as Parliament and the Supreme Court, and in critical federal services in parts of the country where need is sufficient to warrant services on a cost-effective basis. The Liberal Party sees itself as the party of official bilingualism, as it was a Liberal prime minister, Pierre Trudeau , who enacted the first Official Languages Act in and who entrenched detailed protections for the two official languages in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in In pursuing its fundamental purposes and in all its activities, the Party must preserve and promote the status, rights and privileges of English and French.
More recently, the party has edged towards supporting an asymmetrical version of bilingualism. In , NDP MP Romeo Saganash spoke forcefully against making Anglo-French bilingualism a requirement for Supreme-Court judges in addition to criticizing official bilingualism generally due to the linguistic barriers it imposes on indigenous candidates. The party seeks to alter federal language policy, as it applies within Quebec, so as to eliminate the statutory equality of English that is guaranteed under the Official Languages Act and other federal legislation.
In recent years, this has included introducing a private member's bill titled An Act to amend the Official Languages Act Charter of the French Language better known as Bill C , intended to supersede the Official Languages Act with the Charter of the French Language for all federally regulated corporations within Quebec, this principle uses an asymmetrical conception of federalism in Canada.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Crown. Executive Queen-in-Council. Legislative Queen-in-Parliament. Judicial Queen-on-the-Bench. Federal electoral districts Federal electoral system List of federal elections Provincial electoral districts Politics of the provinces. Local government. Municipal government. Foreign relations. Related topics. Other countries Atlas. Main article: German Canadians. Main article: Timeline of official languages policy in Canada. Main article: Canadian Indian residential school system. Main article: Chinese Canadians. Main article: Constitution of Canada.
Main article: Official Languages Act Canada. Main article: Official bilingualism in the public service of Canada. Main article: Language policies of Canada's provinces and territories. Main article: Languages of Canada. Main article: Bilingual education. Main article: French immersion. Act current to July 11th, Department of Justice. Retrieved The purpose of this Act is to a ensure respect for English and French as the official languages of Canada and ensure equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all federal institutions, in particular with respect to their use in parliamentary proceedings, in legislative and other instruments, in the administration of justice, in communicating with or providing services to the public and in carrying out the work of federal institutions; b support the development of English and French linguistic minority communities and generally advance the equality of status and use of the English and French languages within Canadian society; and c set out the powers, duties and functions of federal institutions with respect to the official languages of Canada.
Government of Manitoba. Mar Encyclopedia Britannica. Department of Justice Canada. Archived from the original on Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. Parliament of Canada. Canada's History. Manitoba Law Journal. Supreme Court of Canada. June 13, Association for Canadian Studies. Jan 1, Fraser Institute. Jan 16, Archived from the original PDF on The only exception is the Languages Act itself, which is bilingual.
Ottawa, , p. Of this, , Canadians, or 1. Ottawa, , pp. Statistics Canada collects data on mother tongue, on "first official language spoken", and on bilingualism in French and English. However, the agency does not collect data on bilingualism in non-official languages either persons who speak more than one non-official language, or who have an official language as their mother tongue and afterwards learn a non-official language. Thus, it is possible only to determine that 6,, Canadians have a non-official language as their mother tongue see p. Since all persons who speak neither official language must have a non-official language as their mother tongue, simple subtraction shows that 5,, Canadians, or The census shows that , Quebecers are bilingual, out of a total of 5,, bilingual Canadians.
Fredericton, , p. Fredericton: New Ireland Press, , p. Canadian Heritage, cat. CH, , pg. January 30, The advantages of bilingualism in Canada - PDF". The Independent. The Verge. Lament for a Notion. CBC News.