We are grateful to L. Lagerstedt for performing the multiplex immunoassay, N. Satta and S. Pagano for providing the antibody reagents, and A. VD and J-CS designed the experiments. VD performed the experiments, analyzed the data, prepared the figures, and wrote the manuscript. J-CS revised the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Vito Dozio, Email: hc.
Jean-Charles Sanchez, Email: hc. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Neuroinflammation v. J Neuroinflammation. Published online Nov Vito Dozio 1, 2 and Jean-Charles Sanchez 1, 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received May 30; Accepted Nov Additional file 4: Pearson correlation coefficients of peptide intensities in all 15 samples compared with each other.
Additional file 7: Biological pathways associated with each cluster of proteins.
Abstract Background Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system and are responsible for a wide range of functions critical to normal neuronal development, synapse formation, blood-brain barrier regulation, and brain homeostasis. Conclusions The present study provides comprehensive information about the proteomic phenotypes of human astrocytes upon exposure to inflammatory stimuli both in monoculture and in co-culture with human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article Background A successful inflammatory response is essential for eliminating invading pathogens and for promoting angiogenesis and wound healing inside the brain. Sample preparation for mass spectrometry-based proteomics Cell pellets were resuspended in 0. Cluster, pathway, and correlation analysis PCA and correlation analysis, as well as hierarchical clustering, were performed using R statistics software [ 31 ].
Results Data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry for the identification of the proteomic profiles of inflammation in immortalized human astrocytes We used DIA MS—a method that allows extensive peptide quantification, with high reproducibility and precision [ 26 ]—to study the astrocyte proteome modulation under inflammatory conditions. Open in a separate window. LPS-induced activation of primary human astrocytes in an in vitro model of BBB We then aimed at verifying the modulation of the abundance of several inflammatory-related proteins in primary human astrocytes in a more complex in vitro setting.
Additional file 4: K, docx Pearson correlation coefficients of peptide intensities in all 15 samples compared with each other. Additional file 7: 13K, xlsx Biological pathways associated with each cluster of proteins. Acknowledgements We are grateful to L.
Notes Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Consent for publication Not applicable.
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Contributor Information Vito Dozio, Email: hc. References 1. Multiple sclerosis—the plaque and its pathogenesis. N Engl J Med. Lancet Neurol. Hirsch EC, Hunot S. Astrocytes: regulation of brain homeostasis via apolipoprotein E. Int J Biochem Cell Biol.
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Biomed Pharmacother. Nat Immunol. Cell Res. NF-kappaB signaling pathways in neurological inflammation: a mini review. Front Mol Neurosci. Astroglial NF-kB contributes to white matter damage and cognitive impairment in a mouse model of vascular dementia. El Cid medallion at the Plaza Mayor, Salamanca. Burgalese traditional representation called " Gigantones " of El Cid that is taken to the streets during the town major festivity.
The terrain known as the "Solar del Cid", where his house was located. The monument was erected in Photo taken in Burgos, ca.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see El Cid disambiguation. Burgos Cathedral. El Cid depiction on the book "Portraits of illustrious Spaniards" The Quest for El Cid. Original in Archivo de la Catedral de Salamanca, caja 43, legajo 2, n. Online since 22 January Last time visited November 28th Frank W.
Thackeray, John E. Findling eds.
Events That Formed the Modern World. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. London: Methuan. Madrid, Spain: J. Book 8". Yellow Dot Publishing — via Google Books. Retrieved 23 April Garcia; Martinez, J. Spectroscopy Europe. Swords of El Cid: "Rodrigo! May God curse him! Andrews UK Limited. De Gruyter. Cantar de mio Cid.
The World of El Cid. Manchester University Press. Chronicle of the Cid. A Global History of History. Cambridge University Press. Gale, Cengage Learning. Fletcher Oxford University Press.
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Was the winning pitcher in the All-Star Game Recorded his 50th save of the season on August 25 at Arizona…Came in the Mariners' th game of the season, becoming the secondfastest pitcher to reach the milestone Francisco Rodriguez, games, Recorded his th career strikeout on September 29 vs. Became the fifth reliever in MLB history with at least strikeouts over his first three major league seasons.
Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By posting, you are agreeing to the Rules of Conduct. Choose which default price to show in player listings and Squad Builder. Acknowledgements We are grateful to L. The proteins of ISGF-3, the interferon alpha-induced transcriptional activator, define a gene family involved in signal transduction. Top 30 Prospects.
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