Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Notify me. Description Significant scientific advances have been made in understanding psychological aspects of women's health, and knowledge gained will be of relevance not only to women's health but to the promotion of health and illness prevention and treatment for all individuals.
The current cutting-edge research detailed in this volume is intended to stimulate new thinking and research in women's health from biopsychosocial perspectives. Drawing on research from internationally respected experts, topics covered include ageing, stress, heart disease, cancer, drugs, weight regulation and body image, pain, menstruation, sexuality and infertility, and AIDS. Learn about new offers and get more deals by joining our newsletter. Relational-cultural theory is based on the work of Jean Baker Miller , whose book Toward a New Psychology of Women proposes that "growth-fostering relationships are a central human necessity and that disconnections are the source of psychological problems.
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He complained that psychologists had no basis for assuming psychological processes to be universal and generalizing research findings to the rest of the global population. In , Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan reported a systemic bias in conducting psychology studies with participants from WEIRD "western, educated, industrialized, rich and democratic" societies. Arnett , Altmaier and Hall , and Morgan-Consoli et al. Kurtis, Adams, Grabe, and Else-Quest coined the term transnational feminist psychology also called transnational psychology.
The term refers to an approach that applies the principles of transnational feminism , developed through interdisciplinary work in postcolonial and feminist studies, to the field of psychology to study, understand, and address the impact of colonization, imperialism, migration, and globalization on women around the world. Kurtis and Adams proposed using these principles and a context-sensitive cultural psychology lens to reconsider, de-naturalize, and de-universalize psychological science. In a Summit was organized by Machizawa, Collins, and Rice to further develop "transnational psychology.
Feminist therapy is a type of therapy based on viewing individuals within their sociocultural context. The main idea behind this therapy is that the psychological problems of women and minorities are often a symptom of larger problems in the social structure in which they live. There is a general agreement that women are more frequently diagnosed with internalizing disorders such as depression, anxiety , and eating disorders than men.
While this is certainly a central component of feminist theory, feminist therapists are also sensitive to the impact of gender roles on individuals regardless of sex. Goldman found the connection between psychoanalysis and feminism as the recognition of sexuality as preeminent in the makeup of women as well as men. Freud found that men's ideology was forced onto women in order to sexually repress them, connecting the public and private spheres for the subjugation of women Buhle, The goal of feminist therapy is the empowerment of the client.
Generally, therapists avoid giving specific diagnoses or labels and instead focus on problems within the context of living in a sexist culture. Clients are sometimes trained to be more assertive and encouraged to understand their problems with the intent of changing or challenging their circumstances. Accordingly, the client-therapist relationship is meant to be as egalitarian as possible with both sides communicating on equal ground and sharing experiences.
Feminist therapy is different than other types of therapy in that it goes beyond the idea that men and women should be treated equally in the therapeutic relationship. Feminist therapy incorporates political values to a greater extent than many other types of therapy. Also, feminist therapy encourages social change as well as personal change in order to improve the psychological state of the client and society.
Many traditional therapies assume that women should follow sex-roles in order to be mentally healthy. This may be done unconsciously by the therapist — for example, they may encourage a female to be a nurse, when they would have encouraged a male client of the same abilities to be a doctor, but there is the risk that the goals and outcomes of therapy will be evaluated differently in accordance with the therapist's beliefs and values. Inequality between the sexes and restrictions on sex roles are perpetuated by evolutionary psychology, but we could understand the role of gender in scientific communities by using feminist research strategies and admitting to gender bias Fehr, Traditional therapies are based on the assumption that being male is the norm.
Traditional therapies place little emphasis on sociopolitical influences, focusing instead on the client's internal functioning. This principle stems from the belief that psychological symptoms are caused by the environment. Feminist stance is largely marginalized and seen as standing outside of mainstream psychiatry, and there is the power-based distribution of knowledge, which gives therapists the ability to label women's disorders without knowing their lived experiences Sawicki, Feminist therapists consider power inequalities to be a major contributing factor to the struggles of women, and as such criticize the traditional therapist role as an authority figure.
Feminist therapists believe interpersonal relationships should be based in equality, and view the client as the "expert" in their own experiences. The goal of feminist therapy is to re-value feminine characteristics and perspectives. Often, women are criticized for breaking gender norms while simultaneously being devalued for acting feminine. In order to break this double bind, therapists encourage women to value the female perspective and self-define themselves and their roles.
From birth, women are taught which behaviors are appropriate, and face sanctions if they fail to conform. Before women can be free of these expectations, they need to gain an understanding of the social systems that molded and encouraged these gender stereotypes, and how this system impacted their mental health. First, women work to identify the gendered messages they've received, as well as the consequences.
Power systems are organized groups that have legitimized status, that are sanctioned by custom or law, that have the power to set the standards for society. Types of power include the legal, physical, financial, and institutional ability to exert change. Often, men control direct power via concrete resources, while women are left to use indirect means and interpersonal resources.
Traditionally, assertiveness is a masculine trait, so frequently women struggle with learning to stand up for their rights. The biggest feminist critique of cognitive-behavioral therapy is that the theory fails to focus on how behaviors are learned from society NetCE, Often, the focus is on encouraging women to change their "maladaptive" responses and conform to normative standards.
Many psychoanalytic concepts are considered by feminist therapists to be sexist and culturally-bound NetCE, However, feminist psychoanalysis adapts many of the ideas of traditional psychotherapy, including the focus on early childhood experiences and the idea of transference. Specifically, therapists serve as a mother figure and help clients connect emotionally with others while maintaining an individuated sense of self NetCE, The main critique of family systems therapy is the endorsement of power imbalances and traditional gender roles.
For example, family systems therapists often respond to men and women differently, for example placing more importance on the man's career or placing the responsibility for childcare and housework on the mother Braverman, Feminist therapists strive to make the discussion of gender roles explicit in therapy, as well as focusing on the needs of and empowering the woman in her relationship Braverman, Therapists help couples examine how gender role beliefs and power dynamics lead to conflict.
The focus is on encouraging more egalitarian relationships and affirming the women's experiences NetCE, A feminist approach to dealing with rape or domestic abuse is focused on empowerment. Therapists help clients analyze societal messages about rape or domestic abuse that encourage a victim-blaming attitude, and try to help clients get past shame, guilt, and self-blame.
Survivors often face negative reactions from others that lead to re-victimization when trying to seek help, so therapists can help the woman navigate the medical and legal services if she wishes. It is emphasized that any symptoms are in fact normal responses to the traumatic effect, and the women is not pathologized. Occupational choice is a main theme in feminist counseling. Several factors influence this career trajectory, including gender-role stereotyping of which jobs are appropriate for men and women. Institutionalized sexism in the educational system often encourages girls to study traditionally feminine subjects while discouraging them from studying math and science.
When women do seek nontraditional employment, they are placed in a double bind, where they are expected to be competent at their job while simultaneously being feminine. Especially for women in male-dominated fields, trying to be competent and successful as a woman is difficult Howard, Feminist therapists work with women in search of counseling , as well as men, for help in alleviating a variety of mental health concerns.
Feminist therapists have an interest in gender and how multiple social identities can impact an individual's functioning. Currently, there are not many postdoctoral training programs in feminist psychology, but models for this training are being developed and modified for institutions to start offering them. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Variants general. Variants religious. By country. Lists and categories. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books.
See also: Sex differences in emotional intelligence. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Women and Gender: A feminist psychology 3rd ed. Functionalism, Darwinism, and the psychology of women: A study in social myth. Bohan Ed. Boulder, CO: Westview.
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